Archives for May 2009

Edged Weapon Tactics and Counter Tactics:

Copyright 2002, by Darren Laur

Edged weapons are amongst the most ancient of implements used by human adversaries engaged in interpersonal conflict. Their use tends to culminate in the premature extinction of one and sometimes both parties. Unfortunately the potential lethality of the blade is not always realized or taken into account when confronting a knife-wielding attacker. There is a commonly held view that a person armed with a knife is less dangerous than a person armed with a firearm. The truth is that within their practical ranges both weapons are capable of fatal life stopping wounds. Some interesting facts include:

U.K. studies:

  • Edged weapon assaults are the most commonly used weapon for killing people (7 in 20)
  • In half the incidents of muggings on men the offender is armed with a sharp instrument

North America:

  • One in three chance that if faced with a subject who had an edged weapon, you will be attacked and injured
  • Attacks with edged weapons usually occur when you least expect them
  • In Victoria BC Canada, our police department has found an increase of 35% in the number of calls that they deal with where an edged weapon was involved
  • In 1994, out of the 7 murders in Victoria, 6 were committed with knives
  • The majority of “street” type people carry some kind of edged weapon be it legal or illegal.

FBI Statistics:

  • Edged weapon attackers are responsible for 3% of all armed attacks on police
  • Firearm attacks account for 4%
  • Both of the above stats represent fatalities
  • Subject shot, 10% die from their wounds
  • Subjects stabbed, 30% die from their wounds

Calibre Press:

  • Since 1980 the number of people routinely carrying knives in North America has increased by 92%

I have personally gathered research form around the world on edged weapon assaults and the following facts emerged during my research:

  • The most popular assault technique utilized by the attacker was found to be the hammer strike – either straight down or diagonally
  • The victim tends to squat in an effort to take a path which offers perceived escape
  • Many people seldom saw the edged weapon that penetrated their body. They failed to recognize the danger cues due to faulty perception
  • Knife attacks were found to be exceptionally accurate, to penetrate deeper that some bullets, creating remarkable permanent cavities and rip through numerous organs in one stroke
  • In reality, within their respective ranges, knives are superior to firearms as far as lethality is concerned

Within its range, a Knife:

  • Never runs out of ammunition
  • Never jams
  • Never misfires
  • Rarely misses target
  • Cuts bone, tendon, muscles, arteries, veins with one thrust
  • Can bring about sudden shock, pain, and extended wound channels
  • It has better stopping capabilities
  • Is psychological defeating
  • Has superior concealment capabilities
  • It occupies a permanent wound channel until extracted, at which time, if the blade is withdrawn from a lung, consciousness is rapidly lost

I have also attended several autopsies involving edged weapon deaths and in speaking with Forensic Pathologists have found the following medical facts:

  • Typical death of a stab wound in homicide cases is 1 inch to 1.5 inches through the rib cage
  • In most edged weapon attacks the victim received multiple knife wounds. The usual cause of death are usually the last few wounds of the overall attack
  • Even short bladed knives can penetrate the abdomen by 8-10cm
  • 3cm allows penetration of the ribs
  • 4cm allows penetration of the heart
  • because of the small surface area of a knife, the amount of force per unit area is TONS per square inch

The above noted information shows the importance of training to deal with such encounters. A person’s ability to deal with such situations will be based on his/her TRAINING AND EXPERIENCE. Experience is something not easily acquired, proper training can save lives by preparing you both physically and psychologically. Remember that most edged weapon assaults take place unexpectedly and so quickly that it is not unusual for the defender not to have time to realize that an edged weapon is involved. The attacker who possess an edged weapon usually does not want to convey in any way that he has one, and will usually conceal it until such time as he can deploy it quickly against you. Although a reality, it is a rarity that the attacker will produce his weapon in full view prior to an assault.

As I continued to conduct me research into edged weapon assaults on both police officers and the general public I was also able to identify three common denominators that seem to be present in many edged weapon assaults:

  • In most edged weapon attacks, the defender is already involved in the physical encounter way before he or she even has time to realize that a knife is being used
  • Most defenders see a thrust or slice with a knife as just another punch or kick and not an edged weapon assault
  • It was difficult if not impossible for the defender to differentiate between an attack with an edged weapon or an attack using hands of feet. This was especially true when the defender was not aware from the start of the assault , that the attacker had a knife

I’m a big believer in, “don’t tell me, show me” so in early 1992 I conducted an empirical video research study. I had 85 police officers participate in a scenario based training session where unknown to them, they would be attacked with a knife. The attacker, who was dressed in a combatives suit, was told that during mid way of the contact, they were to pull a knife that they had been concealing, flash it directly at the officer saying “I’m going to kill you pig” and then engage the officer physically. The results were remarkable:

  • 3/85 saw the knife prior to contact
  • 10/85 realized that they were being stabbed repeatedly during the scenario
  • 72/85 did not realize that they were being assaulted with a knife until the scenario was over, and the officers were advised to look at their uniforms to see the simulated thrusts and slices left behind by the chalked training knives

When I reviewed the hours of video tape of the above noted scenarios, I also made several other interesting observations in how the majority of officers reacted to the attacks:

  • most attempted to disengage from the attacker by backing away from the threat. This usually resulted in the attacker closing quite quickly with their victim
  • Those officers that did engage the threat immediately, proceeded to block the initial strike of the attacker and then immediately began to grapple with the attacker using elbows and knee strikes, but FAILED TO CONTROL THE DELIVERY SYSTEM REUSLTING IN A LARGE NUMBER OF LETHAL BLOWS WITH THE KNIFE.
  • Most of the scenarios ended up on the ground

After making these observations, I began to ask myself why I was seeing the above noted reactions. In my research I had the opportunity to read an article authored by Bruce Siddle and Dr. Hal Breedlove entitled “ Survival Stress Reaction” . In this article Siddle and Breedlove sated:

“ research by numerous studies provide two clear messages why people will place themselves in bad tactical situations. The common phenomena of backing away under survival stress results from the visual systems deterioration of the peripheral field to attain more information regarding threat stimulus. Since the brain is demanding more information to deal with the threat, he officer will invariably retreat from the threat to widen the peripheral field. Secondly, the brains normal ability to process (analyze and evaluate) a wide range of information quickly is focused to specific items. Therefore, additional cues, which would normally be processed, are lost. This explains why people can not remember seeing or identifying specific facts which were relatively close to the threat.”

The above noted research by Siddle and Breedlove not only confirmed my findings but also answered why our officers were acting they were. It also explains why one officer, who had actually caught the attackers knife hand with both of his hands and was looking directly at the knife, stated “I didn’t see any knife” It was not until I showed the video that he believed there was a knife.

Based upon all the above noted observations, I began to research a number of edged weapon defensive tactics programs that were being offered to both police officers and citizen. I attended several programs across North America and in doing so, I found that many of the programs although practical in a training environment, were totally unrealistic for the reality of the street. Many of these programs had several pitfalls:

  • Most assumed the defender knew that the attacker possessed an edged weapon. ( what good is this assumption when we know that the majority of attacks with knives the defender did not know the attacker had a knife)
  • Most techniques being taught were to complicated for people to remember ( to many fine complex motor skills which we know do not translate when survival stress clicks in no matter how well trained)
  • Most techniques neglected the not so frozen limbs which the attacker still possessed and would use if not neutralized.
  • Most techniques being taught concentrated on controlling the knife hand rather than the delivery system. ( the hand moves faster than the eye in a spontaneous attack. As well if cut, blood is a very good lubricant and makes grabbing the knife hand, even with two hands, very difficult if not impossible. To replicate this, use some baby oil during your next edged weapon defensive tactics class)
  • Most techniques being taught were designed to be used against a static (stemming) attack.. (Real knife assaults are not static but fluid and dynamic in nature)
  • Most techniques were designed to be used against what I call wide “Hollywood” motion attacks. ( most knife assaults are short and multiple in nature)
  • Most techniques were designed to be used under perfect conditions of the dojo or training studio. ( most would not work if fighting/rolling around in the mud, the blood, and the beer of an “open” rather than “closed” environment

When looking for a Realistic Edged Weapon Tactics/ Counter tactics Program you should ensure that you pick one that teaches:



Awareness strategies start with the above noted information on stats and facts.

Types of Attackers:

There are two types of attackers that you will have to deal with, Skilled and unskilled. Although it is a nicety to know the difference between the two types of attacker, it is very important to remember that both are as equally as dangerous. Remember it is not the skill level of the attacker but rather the desperation factor that makes him so dangerous. As well, in a dynamic spontaneous assault involving an edged weapon, you will probably not have the time to assess your attackers skill level. This is why it is so important that any counter edged weapon program you use, it must work against both the unskilled and skilled attacker. I say:

If the subject pulls a knife, consider him to be an expert

The best defense against an edged weapon is to not get into one in the first place. Watch for edged weapons, this means watching a person’s hands. I have stated for years that the only assumption I make in a fight is that the person I an dealing with may have a concealed weapon that I don’t see.

By being aware of the ways in which a person may deploy an edged weapon may give you the advantage to with the encounter. This means, get to know the technology available. Visit you local knife/ army surplus stores and see what is available. Also look into how this technology is deployed:

  • Listen for the unsnapping of a button on a knife case
  • Listen for Velcro opening
  • Listen for the click of a lock blade
  • Movement behind the back
  • Drawing motion of the arm/elbow
  • The way in which a person may be packing a visible knife. A buck knife case that is holstered with the snap opening down lets you know that this person had thought about using gravity to deploy the knife quickly.
  • Palming

In my program I have over 50 slides of actual knife wounds that I also show to further bring to light the issue of awareness and respect for the blade.

Types of Grips and Strokes:

There are as many gripes and strokes as there are people carrying knives. Is it important to know and understand how an attacker may be holding an edged weapon when it comes to defense. NO !!!!! I believe that the only important thing for you to understand is that the attacker is attacking with a knife. Again, in a dynamic and spontaneous knife attack you will likely not know how the weapon is being held. So if you have learned a system of edged weapon defense that is dependant upon how the knife is being held, good luck using it in the real word !!!!!

What happens if you do get cut:

  • Do not panic
  • Consciously make yourself breath slower (autogenic breathing)
  • Inspect yourself and look for injuries seen and more importantly not seen
  • Apply direct pressure to wounds
  • If injury are to limbs, elevate if possible
  • If you have a chest wound, seal it and protect your airway in case you go unconscious, you don’t want to drown in your own blood
  • If you have a punctured lung, exhale first and use an air tight article to cover and seal the wound
  • Mental commitment “ I’m going to Live”

Principals of pat, wrap, and attack edged weapon counter tactics:

1. Respect the blade The person who attacks with an edged weapon has two incredible advantages.

  • PSYCHOLOGICAL: has chosen to use the weapon ruthlessly
  • PHYSICAL: usually has first strike advantage

Again remember, it is the desperation factor and not the technical skill alone that makes a person armed with an edged weapon so dangerous

2. Expect to get cut. You will likely get cut, bleed, may or may not feel pain. A program that teaches students not to expect this fact is NEGLIGENT. Your goal is to “WIN” notice I use the word “WIN” and not “SURVIVE”. Words are very powerful. The word SURVIVE is no different than the word “TRY”. Both of these words to the subconscious mind mean “FAILURE”. Our goal is to WIN, survival is a by-product of winning.

3. Neutralize the line of attack. In any kind of combatives it is important to get you body of the line of attack.. Remember in a knife fight you will get cut and stuck, the secret is to limit the amount/degree of this damage. Unlike a fist fight, you can not stand there and take multiple blows with a knife

4. Control the delivery system. In the system of Pat Wrap and Attack we do not play the knife hand but rather the delivery system ( arm/elbow) In hockey do you play the puck or do you play the man. You play the man why, the puck moves to quick. In a knife fight don’t visually lock onto the knife hand it moves far to fast when compared to the arm/elbow. We also do not attempt to grab the knife hand in a dynamic situation for the reasons that I mentioned earlier. Small target, slippery when blood is present Remember than most edged weapon deaths are associated with serious multiple blows. Why, person failed to control the delivery system. The delivery system is the arm (lever), if we can control the lever we control the blade. The only exception to this rule is in a static knife hold up where the knife hand is not moving and can easily be controlled with two hands.

5. Attack the attack.. I believe that so long as the attacker has the opportunity to continue his attack, he has a strong tactical advantage, with a strong psychological advantage as well. Both of these advantages must be neutralized as soon as possible by throwing the attacker on the defensive.

I have been involved in FOUR separate edged weapon attacks which I “won”, and I have had one person die in my arms from an edged weapon attack.. There are a lot of edged weapon defense programs out there that are designed to get you KILLED because they do not deal with reality. Do your homework. I have attempted to summarize some of the reasons for the development of my 8 hr Pat. Wrap, and Attack system in this post. This system is being used around the world and has saved many lives. Knowledge and the understanding of that knowledge is power.

Strength and Honor

Darren Laur
Integrated Street Combatives
Victoria, BC

Fighting Against Multiple Opponents

Copyright 2002 – by Gerald Love

Fighting multiple attackers is a situation every rational martial artist fears, and with good reason. As artists we train with a few basic ideas that make this particularly terrifying. In this article I will attempt to explain, in relatively generic terms, the assumptions we must make, and methods we must use to survive the multiple-attacker scenario.

Let’s start with the assumptions made in general of martial situations and the ones we need to make in regards to this situation. The first assumption is in regards to the opponent’s skill and ability. There is an old axiom in fighting to never assume that your opponent is inferior to yourself in fighting ability. This is typically a very good perspective, as it prevents you from acting from a position of overconfidence. The problem appears when you attempt to apply this logic to a multiple-attacker situation. As the old “could you defeat two of yourself” argument goes, the chance of prevailing against two or more opponents under that assumption is so low that many martial arts have chose to ignore that line of training all-together.

That said, let’s make some new paradigms. We don’t know how good our opponent or opponents are; we shall assume from a tactic standpoint that they are as good or better as we are; this encourages us to only fight in situations where we would fight even if we knew we were going to loose. Since I think this is a good acid test for “should I fight or run”, this works well. Though we have decided to train with that mentality, we recognize none-the-less that we, as martial artists, have devoted our time and sweat to becoming better fighters, and the reality is that our opponents on the street are likely to be less-capable fighters than we are. Therefore, it is quite possible to win the multiple-opponent situation. Further, since the fight has been forced, we have no real option but to try to win, so let’s move on.
The Setup

So how do we accomplish it? Well, all situations and artists are unique. Let’s get the obvious out of the way. Don’t be there. That is, attempt escape or de-escalation from the moment you realize the danger. Start trying to position yourself near the exit, near the wall, near the bouncer, whatever from the beginning, even as you are trying to end the situation. I’ll start with the assumption that this has failed and combat has started with you surrounded; if you start already at the outside, then you will have accomplished the first few steps anyway.

Rule one of all fights, especially multiple-attacker fights, is “keep moving”. Be in motion before the fight starts and don’t stand still. When you stand still, that allows your opponents to choose to hit you on their terms and all at once, you will go down and you will loose.

Rule two, you want to be able to see all of them. This means that you don’t want to be in the “middle of the circle”. You want to move to the outside of your opponents so that all of your opponents are in the smallest arc in-front of you that you can manage (a 360 degree circle is bad, all lined up in a 5 degree arc is good). How you will move from the inside to the outside will vary based on your art and situation. The first, easiest, way, is if there is an opening in their group that you can run through. If there is a wall (or better, an exit) there wonderful. A wall makes sure that they cannot get behind you again. Be wary, however of corners for they are mixed blessings, you limit your opponents to a 90 degree arc, but you are also immobile. (remember rule one)
The Fight

there is not a hole already there for you, you are going to have to make one. There are a couple ways to do so, and your training will determine which you can use. Our first choice is available on video (tape 1s24), you may be able to charge through someone close, or grapple and reverse position; the details of how any individual should best accomplish this is beyond the scope of this article.

Once you have some sort of tenable position the fighting begins. You usually want to fight the most aggressive opponent; one good reason for this is he will be the closest to you (being the most aggressive) and therefore the most convenient target. It’s important to keep moving (rule 1) and to make sure they don’t get behind you again. I find that baiting attacks is useful for this; offer a target and withdraw it in order to lure your closest opponent into committing to an attack at your prompting.

If someone gets in real close, beat them around and use them as a shield against the others; but if they manage to make a good-effort escape or someone gets past them, let go and move to the next guy; you don’t want to let yourself get tied up with one person when another has moved into position (remember you need to remain mobile).

Keep looking for that escape position, while you may exhaust all of your opponents, that’s unlikely enough that you should be really using this as a tactic to escape. If that’s really not possible, look to clutter the battlefield as much as possible, make them work to get to you, so you can have less to deal with at a single time.

If there is no way to maneuver to escape, then you should look at relatively quick methods of removing opponents from the fight. What that is will vary based on available weapons and your skills and tactics. Mechanical disables (hyperextensions of knees and ankles), rendering unconscious or dead, and virtual disables (blinding) are all effective methods of removing someone from pursuit and effectively fighting you. If you disable one attacker then move, you are fighting that many less; disable enough and the fight is over.

Silat: Indonesian Fighting

The Devastating Art of Pentjak Silat

by Cass Magda

The world’s largest archipelago stretches like a huge scimitar from Malaysia to New Guinea, encompassing more than 13,000 islands and, more importantly for martial arts, more than 700 fighting systems. Among these, Silat, or Pentjak Silat, is perhaps the deadliest.

Archeological evidence reveals that by the 6th Century AD, formalized combat arts were being practiced in Sumatra and the Malay peninsula. Two kingdoms– the Srivijaya in Sumatra and the Majapahit in Java– made good use of these fighting skills and were able to extend their rule across much of what is now Indonesia and Singapore. The Dutch arrived in the 17th Century and controlled the spice trade up until the early 20th Century, although both the English and Portuguese attempted, unsuccessfully, to gain a lasting foothold in Indonesia. During this period of Dutch rule, Pentjak Silat was practiced secretly until the country gained its independence in 1949.

Wars, foreign trade and immigration across this region since the 6th Century have left an indelible effect on present-day Pentjak Silat. The system incorporates Hindu, Arabian and Chinese weapons and fighting methods, Indian grappling techniques, Siamese costumes and Nepalese music. Thousands of people across the Malay Peninsula still practice the style and make it part of their daily routines.

‘Pentjak’ refers to the body movements used in training. ‘Silat’ is the application of these movements in a fight. There are many types of Pentjak Silat, each with its own curriculum, history and traditions. Silat pulut, for example, is a dance-like method often demonstrated at public ceremonies such as weddings. ‘Pulut’ means ‘glutinous rice’, the sticky kind often eaten at Malay parties. Thus, this ‘rice cake Silat’ is characterized by flashy, aesthetically pleasing moves that have very little to do with real self-defense. Conversely, Silat Buah, a style rarely shown in public, is used entirely for self-defense. Every move, physically or mentally, in Pentjak Silat is consistent with a certain belief system and fighting rationale.

Each style has its own movement patterns, specially designed techniques and tactics. Although all the systems use hand and foot motions, the percentage of each depends on the particular style and the tactics being used. A quite remarkable tactic found in the Harimau system of Sumatra is a movement pattern resembling the antics of a tiger, with heavy emphasis on staying close to the ground in crouching, lying, sitting and squatting positions. The leg strength and flexibility required for such movements is impressive and the Harimau stylist can use his hands like extra feet, or his feet like extra hands. He can start a fight from ground level, or will invite his opponent into a trap, then take him to the ground. On the other hand, many Javanese styles employ tactics that feature more balanced hand and leg work. Some Javanese systems require the practitioner to move in close to the enemy in an upright position, then use both hand and foot maneuvers to take him out.

Pentjak Silat systems are generally named after a geographical area, city, district, person, animal, physical action, or a spiritual or combative principle. For example, Undukayam Silat takes its name from the actions of a hen scratching the ground. The Seitia Hati, ‘faithful heart’, system gets its name from a spiritual principle. Mustika Kwitang is named after the Kwitang district in Jakarta. Menangkabau Silat derives its name from the Menankebau people.

Traditional Pentjak Silat is highly secretive. Teachers never compete for students and usually keep to themselves. The only way to find instruction is though introduction by a family member or friend of the teacher. The acceptance process is often very difficult and prospective students face a strict probation period. The instructor pays particular attention to a student’s character, specifically his temperament, judgment, demeanor, morality and ethics. The probation period enables the teacher to observe the student’s behavior and determine his sincerity. The instructor will reject anyone whose attitude or personality is deemed unworthy. Discipline is harsh and violations often result in the student’s dismissal. Consequently, the number of people who train is usually very small, but then, Pentjak Silat is not meant for everyone.

Once accepted, students are often required to take an oath to the system. Then the real training begins.

All Pentjak Silat systems pay particular attention to defense against multiple opponents. Students are initially taught to defend themselves against a minimum of three attackers and eventually progress to exercises involving five to seven assailants.

Most Silat defenses are a mix of grappling and hitting techniques. A ‘loose’ type of grappling is used, the object being to take down, unbalance, sweep and/or tie-up the opponent momentarily.

Pentjak Silat students are also taught the importance of disengaging from one opponent to face another when fighting multiple assailants. The Silat practitioner should not be so committed to one attacker that he cannot make an immediate escape to face a secondary adversary.

Striking techniques are used to ‘tenderize’ and soften up the assailant prior to initiating Pentjak silat’s intricate grappling techniques. The idea is to be flexible and adaptable to the ever-changing nature of combat, no matter what situation is thrust upon you. Practitioners are taught to consider the climate, opponent’s clothing, time of day and the terrain upon which they are fighting. Such factors help them determine the proper tactics to employ and the emotional atmosphere of the fight.

Once the Silat stylist has executed takedown and follow-up techniques, he immediately crouches and assumes a ready stance in anticipation of further attacks, either from the opponent he just finished with, or other assailants. Silat practitioners never overlook a fallen opponent; they know he can still be dangerous. Such caution and awareness are typical of South-East Asian self-defense systems, which are often given to overkill. It is not uncommon for a Silat stylist to deliver repeated follow-up strikes after an assailant has been taken down. Experience tells the Silat practitioner that one or two blows seldom finish an opponent.

Because hands and feet alone are not enough to solve all combat situations, classical Pentjak Silat includes the study of traditional weapons such as knives, sticks, staff, swords and rope. The same principles and technical rationale used in silat’s hand and foot movements apply to the system’s weapons training as well. In this way, practitioners can resort to everyday objects such as pens, combs, drinking receptacles, shoes, belts, eating utensils, etc., to enhance a particular technique. With this unifying, coherent system firmly in mind, the Silat stylist can substitute and transfer the use of weapons to the empty hand techniques he already knows. This is unlike Filipino fighting arts which teach weapons use first and empty hand derivations later.

The unifying principles of Silat are based on physics, allowing practitioners to fight in the most efficient and economical manner possible. Students learn that there are endless variations to the empty hand techniques. Silat practitioners make use of all their body parts for locking, joint-breaking or striking maneuvers. A skilled Silat stylist, for example, can substitute a shoulder for an elbow and effect the same type of joint lock.

At some point in their training, Pentjak Silat students are taught how to exploit the most vulnerable points on their existing techniques and adding knowledge of vital points as a finishing touch. Like a road map, the routes to the target are already in place; the teacher just makes the student aware of a few stops and points of interest along the way. The opponent’s pressure points can be struck, pinched or squeezed with virtually equal effect. Such attacks are especially useful against large assailants, putting you on equal terms with them and pressure-point techniques are also beneficial for escaping an opponents hold or lock.

A current movement toward sport Silat in Indonesia has some traditionalists quite concerned. These individuals believe the true essence of the art will be lost if rules are implemented and the system emphasizes competition. The hard-liners point out that traditional Silat is mostly defensive in nature. Rarely will the Silat stylist attack first.

Practitioners instead prefer to wait for the opponents attack before taking action. But once a confrontation has escalated into violence, there is no sense of fair play on the part of the Silat practitioner. His personal safety, maybe even his life, is on the line. He cannot be a good loser. Old fashioned Silat is all about protecting your life at all costs and doing whatever is necessary to survive. Tournament competition, the traditionalists fear, would negate the entire meaning and spirit of Silat, weakening its structure as a self-defense system much like termites, over time, weaken the frame of a house.

No traditional Silat system is complete without strong spiritual training. Known as Kabatinin or Ilmu, this aspect of Silat is considered very important because it prepares students for the violence and consequences of combat. Don’t confuse the spiritual training of Silat with the kind of stunts you often see in martial arts; lying on a bed of nails, walking on glass, sticking motorcycle spokes through the skin, etc. True spiritual training involves hard work on your inner self. It is the search for those truths that lead to humility and a reverence for life. It strengthens a practitioner’s will and knowledge so he can rely on himself. There is no room for mysterious tricks or mystical illusions in Silat. Emphasis on mystification generally indicates an absence of true knowledge and understanding. As noted Silat instructor Paul de Thouars says,” The truth of combat is hard enough to understand. Why mystify and create more obstacles to it?”

Despite this, Silat does include amulets, prayers, and rituals designed to induce invulnerability and protect students in times of danger. These privately taught rites are unique to each teacher and are never revealed in public. Such traditions serve as a physical reminder of the student’s connection to the cosmos and his belief system. For example, if he is wearing an amulet of tiger’s stone, or the tooth of a tiger, it is a physical reminder that when he uses his Silat, he assumes a tiger’s attitude and incorporates it’s fighting attributes, including tenacity, courage, daring, and ferocity.

All Silat methods include a belief system, often based on the instructor’s religious background, that produces in student’s courage, confidence, and the will to fight in the side of truth and justice. The belief system serves as a philosophical foundation for the student’s fighting techniques. Much of the physical aspect of traditional Silat has mental and spiritual equivalents. This is why the earnest study of Silat leads to the development of a philosophy of life. Just as the student works hard to refine his physical technique, so too must he attempt to purify his character and improve his relationships with others.

Long-time Silat stylists claim they can tell a lot about a person just by how that individual practices his system. If he hurries through his solo exercises all the time, he is probably going to hurry through his work, leading to sloppiness and mistakes. A Silat student may have a thorough knowledge of the system’s curriculum, but only when he begins to think, live, and above all else, feel that which is taught to him, does he actually begin to understand the real content of his lessons. As he progresses, the student reaches within himself and gradually achieves an understanding of this concept.

Learning traditional Silat is never easy. If it was, it wouldn’t be worthwhile. Just as in life, you value and appreciate the things you have to work hard for. Things that come easy, on the other hand, are never valued for long.

Glossary of Kuntao Silat Terms

[This glossary was put together by Chas Clements in 1992 unfortunately it is not alphabetized and there are several duplicate entries. I’ll try to straighten it out when I have time but may be a while. If any one wants to give it a shot email me at]

This glossary is drawn from many sources, including: The DeThouars Family, Maha Guru Maurice, Pendekar Agung Paul, Hai-Deng Sifu Willem, Bapak Victor, Pendekar Willem Ingram, their wives and family friends and relatives, the absolutely sterling work by Donn F. Draeger, and due diligence from other literary sources and interviews.

The mistakes are mine. No great scholarly attempt was made to find a consistent spelling or to identify from what language root a term derives. Specialty idiom is treated as part of the language. Many words have multiple meanings; a literal meaning, an idiomatic meaning in the general populace, a place name, a particular technique, a particular meaning within its context or in conjunction with another word.

This work is in the area of martial art and reflects the cultural aspect, the traditions and history of the teachers.

Pukulan: from ‘pukul’ or ‘bukul’ , to strike or to collide, ‘an’ : the study of, the study of striking. A Dutch Indonesian slang usage. It is not the idea of striking with the fist, but the colliding of bodies. Also ‘poekoelan’ (archaic)

Pentjak: also, pencak, pentcak, pentcha, etc. (pent ju ta:”strike, kick, block’ Chinese usage) Choreography, the study and practice of movements that may be useful for fighting, or practiced for their own uses. A means of practicing combative movement with a partner without killing.

Pentjakkers: active fighters who study by seeking competition. A Dutch-Indonesian usage.

Silat: literally “lightning” Combat usage of pentjak movements, the study of the lore of combat. ‘Blade’ There is no silat without knives, there is no knife work without silat.

Serak: The fighting style of the Family DeThouars, embodied in the Pendekar Agung Paul DeThouars. Also known as the Decoy Style, taken from the name Bapak (Father) Serak, the founder. Bapak Burung (owl) Serak was one-armed and one foot was clubbed; his insights into distancing, exchange, multipart striking, etc. were codified by his senior student, Mas Djoet into an art for two armed practitioners. Bapak Serak and Mas Djoet lived, practiced and died in the Kramat section of Batavia (Betawi).

KunTao: Originally a Chinese art, it shows great influence from Indonesian sources. Hsingpo, paqua and taikek (tai chi quan) have all been synthesized and influenced by contact with, primarily, Western Javanese (Sumatran) stylings. The Hai-Deng Sifu Willem DeThouars is the KunTao stylist of the DeThouars family, and Bapak (founder) of KunTao Silat KunLun Pai, having gained advanced teaching rank in several representative arts of KunTao and Silat. Implies ‘internal’ stylings, although the ‘hard’ concepts are also addressed.

Tongkat: literally “carrier stick” – Also, the style of Maha Guru Victor DeThouars, “the carrier of the movements (knowledge-pencak) of Serak, for the American market. Also, the fighting stick of the family style; measured from the ground to the bottom of the groin. The three sizes of stick are Tongkat Keciel (short stick) Tongkat Setengah (half stick) Tongkat Panjang (long stick)

Bukti Negara: literally “evidence of a continent” – The existence of the art is evidence that the greater continent of Serak exists. The mystical style of Pendekar Paul. It came to him, in a flash of enlightenment in a single night, as a full blown system, unlike anything seen before. Major aspects of the art center on the use of the fighting floor; positioning and angles of incidence, meridians of weakness and of power, the use of levers and fulcrums, mental preparedness-tenacity and ferocity. It is an art of great subtlety and sophistication.

Malabar: literally “Voice of the Eastern Facing Mountain” – The Kendang Silat Kuntao styling of Westerners; greater size and physicality, modern defense stylings to sophisticated attack, translators and archivers of the Dutch Indonesian culture to Americans. Given in Grace to Senior Lineage Student and First Practitioner, Steve Gartin, by the entire DeThouars Family.

Kilap: also: khilap, kilat, others. literally “The thunderclap” – an aspect of all fighting styles and the center of others. The hand of thunder, displante by percussion, hitting of weak points; implies centered, focused striking. It is an aspect of Kendang Silat, implying grappling technique as well as percussion technique. Petjut Kilat is the action of the whiplash kilat punch. Pukulan Pentjak KunTao Silat Kilap Betawi is a derivation of the grace of the DeThouars family Petjut Kilap Silat as it is practiced by Chas Clements and gives hormat to that lineage alone.

Tji: literally “flows from a river” – The prefix that identifies a styling from Western Java. It is taken to mean ‘style’ or school, and the ‘river’ is a river of knowledge – it has nothing whatsoever to do with low river valleys. Tjimande, Tjikalong, Tjimatjan, Tjimonjet and others are examples. It also would imply a ‘village’ system; restricted to the inhabitants of a particular locale and maybe to the members of a particular family. A great rivalry exists between the various systems with long standing feuds in blood.

Betawi: Proper place name. also; ‘Batavia’ Located on Western Java, Betawi is the place that Sunda speaking Sumatran peoples settled after crossing the Strait of Sunda over the past twenty-five thousand years. These people had brought their fighting styles with them and the word properly discribes Menangkebau tribal stylings. The history is of a particularly brutal place with a lot of commerce between peoples of vastly different heritage.

Bugis: The particular tribe of Orang Menang from which Pak Serak came. They are known as the Invisible People of the Mountain Forest. They cultivate the single hand punch of startling ferocity, kill with poison, distract the mind and have never been conquered. They live in the territory called Gunung Kendang (Drum Mountain) near Bandung, Ngangdong, western Java. Their name for Pak Serak was Bapak Burung (Father Owl) for his mystical, clairvoyant powers. The kebatinan of these people is very strong; personifying power, projections (tujuh), ipoh (‘poisonings’), invisibility of intention, training the animal, withstanding discomfort, etc. Village of Tjibeo (Forbes,1885)

Sumatra: Island Northeast of Java, separated by the Strait of Sunda. A very old culture ranging from very sophisticated traders to cannibalistic pirates and bandits. A very combative peoples made up of the Menangkebau, Atjehnese and others. Our lineage is of the Orang Malayu, the Bugis people of the Menangkebau, Sunda speaking transplants to Western Java. A Muslim professing people with Persian cultural overtones (Northern Indian Mohguls) and Bramanistic Hindu roots.

Majapahit: literally “bitter fruit” – Empire of Indonesia which challenged Kublai Khan, controlled much of the available landscape in the 12th through the 14th centuries. Supplanted the Menangkebau Empire of Sumatra.

Kendang: literally “great drum” – The fighting floor, challenge floor, of village oriented silat. At festivals, the village champion appears and dances his ‘kambangan’ and makes his challenge. If the challenge is answered, the contest is to sweep the opponent. The loser of that contest has the option to continue to the death or to retire from the arena. Combatants are required to bring to the contest: sweet herbs, cloth to wrap the body and burial money. Also; the practice floor, the masters house/school. Kendang Silat is combat styling specifically for the challenge floor; a martial art specifically to fight other martial arts

Sunda Silat:also: Bandung Silat, Main-po, po, Silat Betawi, (Betawie is also known as Batavia). Bandung is the birthplace of Uncle Willem (11 Jan 36) and one of the centers for martial art on West Java. A mountainous region remeniscent of the Gandung Kendang of eastern Sumatra, their place of origin.

Djuru: short styling form, short hand form. Styles may be composed of any number of djurus from six to ten to twenty five or more. Tricks, techniques, timing, breath and distancing are all remembered while doing the djuru.

Langka: A series of djurus strung together to teach a particular aspect of silat. A ‘platform’ or grid to cut the fighting area into usable sections. A form/style of Silat; as in Langka Blekok, the crane style. Langka Tiga Luar (inside triangle langka) Langka Sliwa Luar (crossing interior (square) langka) Langka Sekurum Luar, Langka Pancar Luar, Langka Lima, Langka Djuru Sepak, Langka Djuru Combinasi. L.Tiga, adoption of torque and proper positioning of your space. Langka Securum, three hundred and sixty degrees of sight. L. Sliwa, accepting of total elusiveness. L. Pancar, concept of constant change and awareness of your own space and that of your opponent.

Pukul: to collide; a short fighting technique, made up of movements from djurus, taught as fighting combinations for separate practice and also codifying and demonstrating martial principles that can be studied in greater detail.

Sembut: Short, formal, two-man combination for the understanding of skeletal principles; clearances, meridians and levers, movement on the langka with martial purpose.

Sat: percussive hit or blow, breath technique (chiku) for explosive internal power. A true meeting of Chinese internal practice with Indonesian explosive intention. A series of sats precedes the pli-tok.

Tangkis: interception (block) strike to stop opponents’ hitting power by jamming or pain to the body or strikes to deaden body members.

Sapu: ankle sweep, torqueing throw for repositioning. Inside sweep-sapu luar, outside sweep-sapu dalem; practiced on the tiga, djurus on the top give hand technique options by body positioning.

Beset: rear stepping sweep or tripping obstacle. Inside sweep-beset dalem, outside sweep-beset luar. Beset is the recovery and alternative for as the throwing mechanism of the feet; practiced on the tiga, djurus on the top give hand technique options by body positioning.

Tempiling: Slapping (hard)

Dempe: low posture attitude

Chekeh: Choking

Buka: opening

Buca: interior wipe, trap/throw, nerve punch applications

Displante: “displace” by collision, cut the line, off-balance opponent, take his ground from him. Surprise his spirit, distract his martial intention.

Sodok: jabbing as with the tip of a stick or sword.

Bakthi: internal spirit; as in ‘chi’, but without the Taoist subjectivity/objectivity- useful power as would be ‘jing’ in Chinese with active animist aspects. The taking of heads, cannibalism, trophy parts, the generation of the spirit animal, express the taking of the internal spirit of the opponent and the expression by the practitioner.

Kebatinan: spiritual study, kerochanian, djasmani (spiritual studies in martial art.) The training of the martial spirit to withstand pain, overcome fear and confusion, intrude upon the opponent, personalize martial power, etc.

Ilmu Sehat: Internal power

Sa-Lu: breathing, stepping, palm waving exercise

Buntut: literally “tigers’ tail” – pommel end of weapon, the end of a technique, the technique of delivering the end of the weapon.

Gubu: handle of a(weapon)

Matjan: literally “tiger” , blade end of weapon, long end of stick. ‘Tjimatjan’ is the Javanese tiger style; standing tiger.

Kumbag: Elephant (as in Pamur silat)

Puter Kepala: literally “turn the head”‘. The throw series utilizing the arm bar/ head turn.

Kuda Kuda An: Horse styling, kicks, flicking, lead exchanges and repositionings, the prancing and reversing method of cutting the fighting floor taught in Langkha Tiga Lima.

Sidongkak: “He kicks” as a horse (after the Pajakumbuk area of Sumatra, horse-breeders)

Sembah: Bowing posture, starts sicar dalem response to ambush attacks.

Selamat: literally “peace” – as in Salaam, Shalom, selamat pada tua, peace to you (plural)

Hormat: respect/loyalty/indebtedness. Gift of Hormat is the gift from the student in appreciation and respect for his time, ability and generosity in teaching the art. Ma’afghan Hormat is the deepest gesture of respect for the head of the system. The gifts of Hormat for the entering student are: a sharp knife, a chicken, tea, tobacco, a length of cloth and ‘the gift of gold’. The gift of Hormat for the continuing student and for the practitioner is to show his respect and appreciation for the gift of the guru to him. If a job needs doing, do it.

Adat: laws of conduct; In the village system, it is expected that people will comport themselves with regard for certain basic laws. It governs the seniority system in an art, the political hierarchy of the village and surrounding land, the respect due age and special talent, the gift of madness and power.

Menangkebau: literally “people of the ox-horn” . Originally identified with Sumatra and specifically the Southeastern end near the Straits of Sunda. They have, for centuries, provided a culture from which were drawn artists, craftsmen, holy men and councilors, fighting men and strategists, dancers and musicians, poets and explorers. They are identified with the mountains, Gunung, and are known for supple, strong leg tactics and deep postures. The kris is the knife of the adult male.

Orang: man, member of a group, Kita Orang (we Men together.)

Orang Menang: man of the Menangkebau

Orang Melayu: other Maylaysians

Orang Utan: old man of the jungle, the orangutan is revered as a sentient being whom it is wrong to murder, he provides the model for the ape style (kalong) along with the rock ape. He teaches the techniques of invisibility, great strategic and intuitive awareness, deep strength, ‘long arm, short leg’.

Pendekar: also ‘pandekar’, Champion; implies spirituality and self mastery to the level of a holy man. The word may be a corruption of the Menangkebau words ‘pandai akal’ (clever mind). The self discipline and willingness to submit (as a fighting man) to the requirements of a holy pusaka are awesome and command the deepest respect imaginable. ‘Agung’ is a modifier meaning ‘great’.

Ahli: Expert

Pendetar: Non-fighting priest

Agung: Great-as in Pendekar Agung, ‘Great Champion’

Guru Tuan: ‘prince’ teacher, uncle

Maha Guru: Senior Teacher, Professor

Guru: Leader of Practice Guru Muda (young instructor) Guru Satu (student instructor) Guru Dua (assistant teacher) Guru Tiga (teacher leader) Guru Empat (Master of Fist)

Bapak: Father. Used to convey affection to a mentor, or founder of a style. Comes from the Bugis (Sunda) usage.

Chan Man Ran: Man Who Opens the Door of Knowledge, a very close teacher relationship described by a student, an honorific to the teacher.

Tangan: hand

Tobrok: colliding technique for displante, a major study in all Pukulan styles.

Sepah: kick

Buong: underhand strike with a long arm.

Sang-sat: palm up strike from underneath with the short hand.

Sang-Sat Tinge: High Sang Sat

Ten Dung Kakhi: Fighting Cocks’ kick, a spurring kick of movement around a defense or from an unexpected angle of incidence.

Te: kick

teratai: Shaolin “lotus flower” kick

Gedjelig: downward thrusting kick (stomp), may be delivered from any height to any target, intrusively climbing opponent steps.

selosor: front snap groin kick scoops up to move sarong.

sabit: frontal instep kick (side to side kick)

Puntiar: to jump

Pintuh: door

Pau: explosive breathing expansion block with shoulder, a reply from sicar dalem to ambush.

Sabit Tumit: heel thrust kicks

Susulan: reverse sickle heel kick (the hackysack kick)

Tji Monjet: Monkey styling (Hanuman sized monkey)

Dit Da Jao: Iron Hitting Wine medication for healing bruises.

Majapahit: Hindu-Buddhist empire of Southeastern Asia from about 1250 to 1389.

Atjeh: Formidably combative people of Sumatra, never conquered.

Batak: a cannibalistic people of Sumatra. They were in subservience to the Menangkebau and paid them tribute. Their recipe is Chili, Peanuts and a little lemon juice.

Combinase: Combinato, Combinate, others. A combining of the stylings of several martial styles; Serak, Tjimande, Okinawate’, KunTao, etc.

Hilot: Healing art for martial arts injuries, similar to Kappo. An expression of the ChiKu; massage, stroking of the spirit, infusion of spirit, Known as healing in the bloodstream.

Pak Serak: Founder of Serak system (1790-1860(?) A member of the Badui tribe of the Menangkebau of Sumatran Sundanese extraction. He was a practitioner of nine martial styles, offering proficiency in three; five Indonesian, two Indian and two Chinese. Challenged at birth by having only one arm and a clubbed foot, he was able to see strengths and weaknesses in martial arts and to formulate his own. Known as Bapak (Father) Burung (Owl) for his clairvoyance and discernment, he killed tigers and wild water buffalo with his hand.

Pak Serak was a widely employed martial trainer, bodyguard to Sultans, political activitist and martial consultant to nobility. Died in Kramat, Batavia, Djakarta.

Mas Djut: (also,Djoet)d.1930(?).(Kramat, Betawi) Senior Student of Pak Serak and the man responsible for organizing the system from the teachings of Pak Serak. As Djoet had two arms, two legs, he saw the utility of the one armed mans’ style as practiced by himself. Passed the art to Johan DeVries and to his nephews, John and Ernest DeVries. The present Pendekar (Paul DeThouars) was the student of John DeVries, his Great Uncle by marriage. Mas Djut was bodyguard to the Sultan of Ponti Anak on Borneo.

Pisau: A short, single edged utility knife. The basic fighting knife of all cultures. Other small knives; sewar, sakin, pisau belati

Kris: A double edged dagger of various sizes and shapes. The main weapon of the Menangkebau people.

Golok: A broad single edged cleaver, very heavy.

Parang: A cutlass style, single edged sword.

Kelewang: A broadsword type. Other swords; pedang, rudus, pamandap

Arit: a sickle; often used in pairs or with another weapon.

Tombak: A spear with a removable blade. The blade is used as a separate weapon when the spear is inconvenient to carry. Other spears;lambing, kujur, kunjur

Tjaluk: a sickle bladed short knife .

Rante: rante ber gangedug, rante delima, rante kembok, others, Long chain weapons with weights (6 to 9 ft.)

Pajung: umbrella (used as fighting weapon) both folding and full umbrella styles are practiced.

Rantjau: Punji Stick, rolled bamboo sliver covered with poisons, bamboo stake buried at one end.

Pusaka: Heirloom, holy legacy- The Serak is a pusaka to be conserved and passed on intact to the next generation.

Beladiri: A personal protection art that emphasizes practicality, it is updated and refined at every opportunity. It has no ‘sparring’ applications and the principles can be very simple.

Tjimande: Brother art to Serak, founded by Mas Kair (perhaps Mas Djoet) passed to Pa Atma of Tjimahi near Bogor, West Java, to Carl van Deerns, the father in law of Guru Tuan Willem and so to Joyce and Willem DeThouars.

Tjikalong: Brother art to Serak. Known as Bat Style but only from the fact that it comes from the village of bats, involves no hanging upside down. Actually a style drawn from the large primate actions; Rock Apes, OrangUtan, etc.

Longar: long arm movements

Tjimatchan: Javanese Tiger style, fights upright with long sweeping movements; skin attacks, long bone traps, precision striking, ferocity.

Harimau: Sumatran Tiger Style, low to the ground, creeping movement to upset opponent.

TjiOeler: Snake Style, nerve center attacks, muscle splitters, organ attacks, bone displacements, evasion.

Tjiwaringen: brother art to Tjimande, emphasizes long-arm techniques and exquisite balancing as a martial technique.

TjiPadang: A horse style emphasizing a multitude of kicks, stomps, rakes, toekicks, heeling, etc.

Raja Naga: King Snake Dragon, highest expression and most advanced animal form, combines aspects from all forms; animal, human, spirit and immortal.

Oelar Sendok: King Cobra

Setria: patriot (a martial attitude)

Setria Hutan: patriot forest (a martial attitude)

Putri: literally “a lady” – Styles derived from the actions or attitudes of women. putri bersedia, ladies in preparation Putri Sembhyang, ladies worshipping Putri berhias, ladies dressing Putri sepasang pair of flowers

Siku-Siku: also, Tjabang, Trisula, Sai (Okinawan) Three Branch Iron truncheon, main weapon of Serak (Alexander the Great) Originally a tree branch used to picket animals, later a weapon of the privileged classes, associated with animal ownership and metal.

KunLun Pai: literally “focused animal hand of Kun Lun Brotherhood” – Kun Lun is a region of the mountains of Hukien, one of the centers of Shaolin temple boxing.

Lineage of KunLun Pai is as follows: Li Po Chang, scholar of the Neijia Chang, Po Qua Zen- his student, Liem Ping Wan of Doasim, founder of Chuan Chu Ie Shing-I, his students; Tan Tong Liong, Wim Chen, Buk Chin of the arts, Que Moi Shantung Kung Fu Chuan Fa, Kwantung Po Kwa Zen and TaiKek and Pa-kua Zen Kun Tao, the art of Fuekchin Kun Tao and Hukien KunTao. The Silat is drawn from the Family Styles, Kendang Silat of Sardjono Guru and Raden Djuaggan, Ganjung System of Mahil Atmo, the Pamur of Madura and Pecut Silat, the Silat of Bondo Waso of Guru Besar Tai Ing. The influence of European Boxing and European Fencing are also very stongly represented. These arts are embodied in the person of Hai-Deng Sifu Willem DeThouars, God Grace him. The KunLun Pai also discribes the cigar dalem group (a Pai) ‘ a group of men going about doing honourable work’ The fingers of the animal hand are separate but joined in the doing of honorable work.

Tulen: literally “purity” – close to the source, the old Tulen Styles are: Silat Serak, Tjimande, Silat Kemango of Edgar van der Groen , TjiKalong, Tenje’kan and Silat Betawie.

Pamur Silat: Silat from the Island of Madura. Characterized by bladework, no sparring application, minimal foot shifting, good old mans’ style. Emphasis the “harimau” tiger. see also Pamor.

Isi: literally “feeling”

Tangkapan: to catch the enemy

Bantingang: to throw the enemy

Sambut Pukui: to evade, parry, and strike

Pombas Mian: to kill as a final decision

Dasar: fundamentals (12 of each)

Djurus: step by step elements

alis plarian: to dodge & escape

kamasukan: the successful entry into the enemies defense

To Count:

Satu – one
Dua – two
Tiga – Three
Empat – four
Lima – five
Enam – six
Tujuh – seven
Delapan – Eight
Sembilan – nine
Sepuluh – ten

Sebelas – eleven
duabelas – twelve
tigabelas – thirteen

seratus – one hundred

seribu- one thousand

Setengah: one-half, as in Tongkhat Setengah.

Murid: Student

Pandai: skilled craftsman (martial arts rank-practitioner)

Gilap: literally “brightening” – The training and action of instant response to attack. An aspect of the training of the intention.

Tiga: literally “three” – Basic platform for fighting one person, angle of attack and defense utilizing meridian theory. The concept of ‘three’ runs through the art constantly, breathing, meditation, structures of concepts, etc.

Ma’aaf: prefix word of respect

Sudah: “Yes, I understand.”

Kinjit: squatting elbow directed throw

Siloh: Cross-legged offensive/defensive seated position for warriors. Also the means for going to the ground while supporting the weight of the opponent to control his body, or to seat next to the opponent as he is thrown to the ground so as to continue in groundfighting. A very strong part of Harimau tiger styling. Sempok is front seated siloh, Depok is back seated siloh. Siloh satu (warriors seat) Siloh Dua (tailor style) Siloh Tiga (kneeling seat)

Tangkis Garis: Blocking cut, a jam to the thrust or punch.

Tendangan: to kick (or knee) and the displante resulting.

Totok: foreknuckle punch to sternum that attacks throat without withdrawing (slides upward, presents elbow).

Tepisan: to parry (not a block, more finesse).

Meliwis: Swallow (a bird), a style that accepts PoKwa readily, very evasive with intercepting strikes, locks and throws.

Lingsang: Otter; an agile grappling presentation style

Kuda ayer: Hippopotamus (water horse) a rushing, overwhelming presentation style.

Garuda: mythical bird, the mount of Agni (bringer of fire), eagle, associated with the aspect of the phoenix. Very scholarly study.

Tekken: walking cane, hooked staff, as weapon. The hook points forward.

Tangkapan: to catch the enemy while positioned to throw.

Bantingang: to throw the enemy (mid-throw actions)

Kamasukan: the entry into the enemies defenses.

Tangkapan: control the wrist of striking arm to use as a handle

Pombas Mian: the decision to kill as a last resort of defense. This is the previous decision as well as the effecting of the action.

Sambut(s): practice techniques for evasion, parry/counterstrike. A method of practicing specific technical responses in a string. A form of sparring against one or more opponents.

Kambangan: literally “Flower Dance” – The movement of the dance is a non-threatening means of practice, a way of meeting girls and a form of challenge to observers to see the techniques of a rival. The ‘palm waving’ movements train footwork, breathing, attack positions, skeletal interception, body torquing, positional changes to various directions, etc. It is performed with a scarf, a candle, a saucer of water with a floating flower, etc. The music is provided by the Gamelan orchestra which also accompanies the fighting contests. Also, ‘randai’ saucer dance

Tjio Bakh: literally “try it” – a challenge

Shiapa Brani: literally “Who has the guts to fight?” – a challenge

Kita Brani: literally “I (we, my group) have the guts to fight” – challengers response

Amas Adrai: DeThouars family motto: “With God, We Prevail” (We shall survive)

Pukul Turush: literally “straight in punch” – to fight until the end

MahdJiu: literally “Go Ahead” – a challenge

Nje-brang: crossing sang-sat, to cross-over (a platform direction from Langka Sliwa), a kuda exchange. Training the ankle positions to effect major torso repositioning. ankles/angles.

Tiga Lima: Langka Lima – walking the tiga in djurus, sapus, besets-eighteen count, Kuda to reverse.

Pamor Silat: from Madura, sandy beach style- good platform, stepping in, hand traps, minimal jumping to the side, attention to footing-good ‘old mans style’. Very direct knife attacks. see also Pamur

Latihan Matchan: Stick (tongkat style) in a tiger modality, presents as a blade.

Dalem Lan Sup: literally “Sour fruit” – Outside response technique against the knife.

Kraton Guards: guardians of the Kraton (palace, armed enclosure). The central Javanese bodyguards of the Sultan of Jogja who were the standard by which warriors were measured, instructed by Pak Serak. The Visayan (southern Pilipino) styles are derivative.

Kerojok: the fighting of one against many, a continuing technical practice

Petjut: The action of a whiplash, a forward punch, Silat Kilap Petjut is a beladiri style of the DeThouars family.

Guntung: scissor blow with stick.

Gatok: butterfly blow with stick

Pentjakkers: people who are part of the martial arts community, Dutch Indonesian slang. Also, “brawlers”

KunTaoers: people who practice KunTao, Dutch Indonesian Slang.

Potong Leher: knife defense ending with the reversal of the weapon to the throat.

TjiNgkrik: Brother art, springing, evasion, siloh, monkey hands, started by woman observing monkeys fighting.

Silat Kwitang: Big mans art, chinese influence on indiginous art, vicious. Mustapha Kwitang is one of the expressions (as taught by Pendekar William Ingram).

Arbir: five foot bladed weapon, a groove in the staff orients the blade edge for the user at all times.

Gowakang: Breathing (a study in all martial arts)

Bathin: spirit (internal)

Hantu: “Spirit” (external) an expression of the Animistic heritage of the Sumatrans.

Kailat: Closing on the target

Kilat: Speed of precise execution, not just quickness – celerity. Another spelling of Khilap; connotes thunderous percussion without warning to vulnerable targets.

Panggau: Warrior

Cigar Dalem: Inner Circle, the close guard. The inner area of body defense.

Ratu Duri: lit. to take the intestines of an opponent. King of Thorns, The Thorny King, Kingly Power of a Continent. Emphasizing the ChiGung action of making the body hurt the opponent when he hits it. The action of the Indonesian Continent showing its’ martial power to the world by a style that includes wisdom from many sources.

Pai Yun: Tiger Descending the Mountain. The first tiger form of KunLun Pai KunTao; a standing tiger form of the Shaolin style with aspects of TjiMatchan.

Ling Sing Toy: a basic form in KunTao

Wu Kung: The ‘strong warrior’ art of Shaolin and others. It conditions the body to war and privation, the mind to stress and the spirit to the power that war requires of the participant.

Tan Lung: a basic practice in KunTao. The “Trackless Art”. An individual expression of the understanding of the Art, its’ principles and techniques expressed as solo movement.

Djuru Satu: lit. “First Hand Form”. Introduction to basic principles of KunTao Silat.

Guru Besar: lit. “Great Teacher”. An honorific to a respected fellow teacher of another style.

Bunga: Ritualized greeting style that includes self defence options.see also, Sembah

Rahasia: The teaching of the vital points, how to attack and defend them.

Bedok: a meat Axe

Buka: the covered fist, “open to all things”

Tarik: Open hand invitation to attack

Lawan: a signal of having experienced combat. cat stance, palm to face, fist to hip.

Andeka: surpassing in quality

Menarik Napas Dalam: deep breathing techinque-chiku

Rasa: intuitive inner feelings

Sujud: self surrender

Batin: within the heart

Ingsun Sejati: true self

Tapa: ascetic practices

Semadi: Meditation

Berok: a monkey styling

TjiKak: a monkey styling

Maccacque: A monkey styling

Sikap Kuda Hormat: Horse stance in attention.

Tongkat Langka Monyet: Tongkat monkey form for footwork.

Kaki Besi Kanan: Turn foot to the right (kick)

Kaki Besi Kirie: Turn foot to the left (kick)

Puter Sembilan Belas: Turn 90 degrees left.

Jalan Puter: Step and turn.

Naga Dimulka: Full Frontal Dragon

Sepak Naga: Low Front Dragon Kick (full)

Kuda Sepak Blekok: Horse up Crane kick

Sepak Dimulka: Snapping Frontal kick

Tukar: exchange (as of hands, or feet) Kuda

Puter Naga Diblakang: turning back dragon stand

Sapu Harimau: Tiger sweep

Sepak Blekok Didalam: inside Crane kick

Beset Diblakang: 90 degree Backsweep

Corporate Kung Fu

Maryville man leading new executive training effort

(this article originally appeared in the Maryville Daily Times on Feb 8th 2006)

by Jennifer Hodson

A Maryville businessman is at the forefront of a growing corporate trend — kung fu.

Richard Clear of Clear’s Silat and Street Kung Fu in downtown Maryville has brought a martial arts program he created in Florida, one specifically tailored to business executives, to Blount County.

The price tag for Executive Transformations is nothing to sneeze at — one-on-one training starts at around $2,500 a day, while groups can train for about $450 a person — but Clear believes the investment is perhaps the smartest one a person can make.

Not only do people learn to defend themselves, but they gain added benefits such as increased confidence and focus, as well as an improved ability to make decisions quickly and under pressure.

Clear related the account of a doctor who spent a weekend in the Executive Transformations program in Florida. When Clear first met the doctor, he encountered a man he described as “quiet, withdrawn, timid and single.”

Six months later, the doctor came back to visit Clear and said he was engaged and had recently expanded his practice.

Was it the martial arts training?

Clear believes it was.

“When he walked in the door, it took me a second to recognize him because he had this healthy glow,” he recalled. “It was a night and day difference.”

Clear said his students’ increased confidence comes from real ability, and that new sense of confidence carries over to all a person’s other activities, including careers.

“There are people who have confidence that is false confidence, but it’s easily shaken,” he said. “This gives real confidence.”

He related another account of a financial planner, Michael Kluzinski, who took his course and soon doubled his productivity, boosting his sales to the million-dollar range.

“We’ve seen people take the courses, and it’s really changed their lives,” Clear said. “It goes right to the core of a person.”

Kluzinski was later attacked while traveling in Costa Rica and credited Clear’s course with saving his life.

Too often, Clear said, people have an “it-won’t-happen-to-me attitude” — until it’s too late.

Another benefit of his program, he said, is that it teaches “superior positioning skills,” or ways to defend oneself without being held liable for assault.

He teaches students how to move in ways so, ideally, they can avoid being hit. If they do have to fight back, he teaches them ways to maneuver so that it will be clear to any responding law enforcement that they were merely defending themselves.

“If you have to put hands on (attackers), then it will be very clear that they were attacking you first,” he said. “The average attacker’s not looking for that level of fight.”

Over the years, Clear has taught numerous corporate seminars in the United States and Canada and has had clients that included CEOs, attorneys, law enforcement officers and military personnel.

His Executive Transformations program was featured in the March 2000 issue of Millionaire magazine and his techniques, which draw heavily on processes he learned in Indonesia and Malaysia, have been featured in magazines such as Inside King Fu.

Though Executive Transformations is gaining popularity with corporate clients nationwide, Clear offers more affordable classes for the general public, generally starting at around $99 a month.

He does not teach children. His students typically range in age from 16 to 60, he said. Sixteen- and 17-year-olds require prior approval.

“I won’t teach a 16-year-old thug,” he said. Safety isn’t just for senior executives.

“The average person needs an action plan,” Clear said

Intro to 1 Touch Knockouts Seminar @ Karate College

Title: Intro to 1 Touch Knockouts Seminar @ Karate College
Location: Radford, VA
Link out: Karate College Website
Description: Sigung Richard Clear will be teaching at this years Karate College. Topics will include an Introduction to 1 Touch Knockouts, Combat Tai Chi & more
Start Date: 2009-06-25
End Date: 2009-06-28